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Engulfment is probably a good strategy particularly in wet, well mixed environments.

Here exoenzymes would probably be unsuitable due to the large diffusion factor. Engulfment results in intracellular though not cytoplasmic digestion thus limiting the volume to which digestive enzymes are exposed. Holophytic [photoautotrophic]: Holophytic describes the obtainment of nutrients by the same method as algae, cyanobacteria, and green plants i.

Some, but only a minority of protozoa are holophytic Saprozoic [saprophytic]: Saprozoic or saprophytic protozoa absorb nutrients from the extracellular environment. Classification In the Society of Protozoologists published a taxonomic scheme that distributed the Protozoa into six phyla. Two of these phyla the Sarcomastigophora and the Apicomplexa-- contain the most important species causing human disease. This scheme is based on morphology as revealed by light, electron, and scanning microscopy.

Dientamoeba fragilis, for example, had been thought to be an ameba and placed in the family Entamoebidae. However, internal structures seen by electron microscopy showed that it is properly placed in the order Trichomonadida of flagellate protozoa.

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In some instances, organisms that appear identical under the microscope have been assigned different species names on the basis of such criteria as geographic distribution and clinical manifestations; a good example is the genus Leishmania, for which subspecies names are often used. Biochemical methods have been employed on strains and species to determine isoenzyme patterns or to identify relevant nucleotide sequences in RNA, DNA, or both. Extensive studies have been made on the kinetoplast, a unique mitochondrion found in the hemoflagellates and other members of the order Kinetoplastida.

The DNA associated with this organelle is of great interest. Cloning is widely used in taxonomic studies, for example to study differences in virulence or disease manifestations in isolates of a single species obtained from different hosts or geographic regions. Antibodies particularly monoclonal antibodies to known species or to specific antigens from a species are being employed to identify unknown isolates.

Eventually, molecular taxonomy may prove to be a more reliable basis than morphology for protozoan taxonomy, but the microscope is still the most practical tool for identifying a protozoan parasite.

Life Cycle Stages During its life cycle, a protozoan generally passes through several stages that differ in structure and activity. Trophozoite Greek for "animal that feeds" is a general term for the active, feeding, multiplying stage of most protozoa. In parasitic species this is the stage usually associated with pathogenesis. In the hemoflagellates the terms amastigote, promastigote, epimastigote, and trypomastigote designate trophozoite stages that differ in the absence or presence of a flagellum and in the position of the kinetoplast associated with the flagellum.

A variety of terms are employed for stages in the Apicomplexa, such as tachyzoite and bradyzoite for Toxoplasma gondii. Other stages in the complex asexual and sexual life cycles seen in this phylum are the merozoite the form resulting from fission of a multinucleate schizont and sexual stages such as gametocytes and gametes. Some protozoa form cysts that contain one or more infective forms. Multiplication occurs in the cysts of some species so that excystation releases more than one organism.

For example, when the trophozoite of Entamoeba histolytica first forms a cyst, it has a single nucleus. As the cyst matures nuclear division produces four nuclei and during excystation four uninucleate metacystic amebas appear.

Similarly, a freshly encysted Giardia lamblia has the same number of internal structures organelles as the trophozoite. However, as the cyst matures the organelles double and two trophozoites are formed. Cysts passed in stools have a protective wall, enabling the parasite to survive in the outside environment for a period ranging from days to a year, depending on the species and environmental conditions. Cysts formed in tissues do not usually have a heavy protective wall and rely upon carnivorism for transmission.

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Oocysts are stages resulting from sexual reproduction in the Apicomplexa. Some apicomplexan oocysts are passed in the feces of the host, but the oocysts of Plasmodium, the agent of malaria, develop in the body cavity of the mosquito vector. Reproduction Reproduction in the Protozoa may be asexual, as in the amebas and flagellates that infect humans, or both asexual and sexual, as in the Apicomplexa of medical importance.

The most common type of asexual multiplication is binary fission, in which the organelles are duplicated and the protozoan then divides into two complete organisms.

Division is longitudinal in the flagellates and transverse in the ciliates; amebas have no apparent anterior-posterior axis. Endodyogeny is a form of asexual division seen in Toxoplasma and some related organisms.

Two daughter cells form within the parent cell, which then ruptures, releasing the smaller progeny which grow to full size before repeating the process.

It is a region of low relief with elevations generally being below 50 m a. Bautista et al. The highest areas lay in the center of the peninsula, the elevation decreasing eastward and westward from there abruptly. The karstic environment can be subdivided in incipient, juvenile, mature with good drainage and mature with poor drainage.

On the island of Cozumel, the climate is of the warm humid subtype Am f with abundant winter rainfall. Forest cover includes various types from tropical deciduous forest to tropical evergreen forest.

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In these regions, the cattle density varies from 0. Plant collection and data management. Samples of forage plants were collected together with associated floristic and ethnobotanical information.

Based on a survey designed within the EYP, it was possible to explore several information entries data fields on the use of the plants life cycle, life form and reproduction, parts used, forms of use and handling , as well as information on the interviewees and their economic activities. The information is completed with plant family, scientific name, life form 3 fields , the animal that consumes it 6 fields , geoforms and soilscapes in which the plant is located Fig.

In addition, a bibliographic review was made in relation to the forage quality of native plants. All plants were geographically located in the geomorphic environments, geoforms and soilscapes in which they were collected. Data on the scientific and Maya plant names, edible parts, life forms and consumption by domestic animals were managed in dynamic tables in EXCEL. Plant records may be grouped according to family, life form, geomorphic environment, geoforms, soilscapes or by animals consumption.

The more widely distributed forage plants are: Amaranthus spinosus L. Sprengel var. Gaertn, Panicum maximum Jacq. Table 1. Herbaceous forage plants have potential use in silvopastoral systems, more so considering that the majority belong to the legume family Fabaceae.

The stem, leaves, buds and flowers of the arborescent and shrubby forage species have a potential as animal food sources. Moreover, 33 of these perennial plant species are multipurpose trees having uses such as wood, firewood, shade, live fences, medicinal, etc.

Agustin grass.

These plants represent only 3. Forage species used by Mayan communities. In the production of bovines, 25 arboreal species and 10 species of shrubs and 1 palm Sabal mexicana were found to have a potential for use in silvopastoral systems. Forage tree species are: Carica papaya, Pithecellobium dulce, Acacia gaumeri, Piscidia piscipula, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Acacia pennatula, Sesbania grandiflora, Brosimum alicastrum, Bursera simaruba, Colubrina arborescens, Leucaena leucocephala, Lonchocarpus guatemalensis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Ficus cotinifolia, Guazuma ulmifolia, Lonchocarpus hondurensis, Vitex gaumeri, Lonchocarpus yucatanensis, Byrsonima bucidaefolia, Colubrina greggii, Duranta repens, Jacaratia mexicana, Swartzia cubensis, Lonchocarpus rugosus and Pithecellobium saman.

Forage shrub species are: Acacia riparia, Dalbergia glabra, Tithonia diversifolia, Acacia collinsii, Bunchosia glandulosa, Malpighia punicifolia, Neomillspaughia emarginata, Senna undulada, Tithonia rotundifolia and Calliandra houstoniana.

Plants with a wider distribution are shown in figure 3. The chemical quality reported for some forage plants is presented in table 2. The arboreal species with potential use as forage for porcine livestock are: Bursera simaruba, Leucaena leucocephala, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Byrsonima crassifolia, Ficus yucatanenses, Psidium guajava, Simarouba glauca, Byrsonima bucidaefolia, Jacaratia mexicana, Swartzia cubensis, Ziziphus yucatanensis, Artocarpus communis and Pithecellobium saman.

In addition, Bursera simaruba presents high ecological importance values in 12 and 26 year old fallows. Forage shrub species are: Bauhinia divaricada, Sesbania emerus, Piper auritum, Bunchosia glandulosa, Malpighia lundellii and Malpighia glabra.

Bauhinia divaricata, Bunchosia glandulosa, Sesbania emerus and Piper auritum are woody forage plants consumed by pigs Fig. Mayan knowledge includes 29 species of herbaceous and woody forage plants consumed by goats, of these species, those having a wider distribution 5 soilscapes o more are: Acacia gaumeri, Leptochloa virgata, Olyra yucatana, Panicum maximum, Acacia riparia, Lasiacis divaricata, Gouinia guatemalensis, Panicum hirsutum, Wissadula amplissima, Gayoides crispa and Leucaena leucocephala.

The 5 most important plants used by the Maya communities for domestic animal consumption were: Carica papaya, Chloris virgata, Leptochloa virgata, Olyra yucatana, Desmodium procumbens, Rhynchosia yucatanensis and Byrsonima bucidaefolia with presence on 21, 9, 9, 9, 3, 2, and 2 soilscapes respectively.

The most important plants used by the Mayan people to feed rabbits are: Paspalum vaginatum, Boerhavia caribaea, Chaetocalyx scandens, Cracca greenmanii, Cracca panamensis and Crotalaria cajanifolia. Discussion Arellano et al. Some authors such as Standley , Sousa and Cabrera and Sosa et al.

It is noteworthy that legumes are amply recognized as being important forages for use to improve animal production NAS, ; NRC, Local producers in the study zone consider Bursera simaruba, Sesbania grandiflora, Lonchocarpus guatemalensis, Acacia pennatula, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Gliricidia sepium and Acacia gaumeri to be good quality forage plants Ayala and Sandoval, ; Mizrahi et al. In particular, Bauhinia divaricata and B. Bauhinia divaricata has the potential to be used in silvopastoral systems in seasonal tropical forests due to its coppicing capacity after pruning, thus forage can be produced during the dry season Zapata et al.

The recent karstic plain ID 17 is dominated by Nudilithic Leptosols, Lithic Leptosols and Hyperskelethic Leptosols having low effective depth, low retention of humidity and a scarce amount of fine earth Table 3. Leptosols present extreme restrictions for plant growth Bautista et al. However, further studies are required in order to evaluate the quality of the remaining 56 plants. A large amount of herbaceous plant species is used for feeding livestock and poultry in the Mayan communities, which constitutes another opportunity for further research on the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of these plants, as well as their agronomic properties and their assimilation by animals.

Also, since most herbaceous plants grow during the rainy season when forage is abundant, future studies must be focused on the conservation of the forage quality of these species in order to used during the dry season.

Therefore it is important to know soil distribution in order to design agricultural management practices that are appropriate for each soilscape for forage plants.

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The design of silvopastoral systems considering forest management will allow for reducing tree establishment costs while also achieving meat and milk production from the beginning and in a continuous way. The knowledge of Mayan people should be considered in the design of new agricultural programs of the region, especially in the cattle area.

However, knowledge of the Mayan communities about the use of seasonal tropical forest plants as forage sources generates new research questions: What is the chemical quality of plants? What might be the problems generated by antinutritional compounds? What plants respond best to pruning? How does the quality and quantity of fodder vary in response to soil and climatic factors? The present study is an example of the inclusion of the knowledge corpus and praxis of the Mayan people for the generation of natural resource productive strategies as new silvopastoral systems.

However, to achieve sustainability goals it is also necessary to include the Maya cosmovision kosmos , i. Mayan traditional knowledge on forage plants includes the edible parts and the consumption by domestic animals.

This knowledge can be used to improve animal production systems. In this study we include geographic location, geomorphic environment, geoforms and soilscapes of the fodder plants. Knowledge of the Mayan people about the use of tropical seasonal forest forage plant species provides us with valuable information that could be used to improve existing forms of livestock and poultry production, as well as the design of new practices suited for particular combinations of landscape components e.

The authors would like to thank Dra. Literature cited Acosta, B. Flores and A.

Etnoflora Yucatanense. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Los recursos naturales del sureste y su aprovechamiento: suelos.

Revista de la Escuela Nacional de Agricultura Chapingo. Sandoval, H. Hostec, A.

Is goats' preference of forage trees affected by their tannin or fiber content when offered in cafeteria experiments? Sheep preference for different tanniniferous tree fodders and its relationship with in vitro gas production and digestibility.

Flores and J. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine doi Manu and R. Batllori, M. Ortiz, G. Palacio and M.

Colunga and A. Larque eds.

Índice general

Bautista and G. Palacio eds. Castillo and A. Palacio, P.Flores, V. Agroforestry today The expansion of pastures and the conservation of ecosystems are 2 incentives for the search of new forms of production in tropical karstic zones Zapata et al.

Send the link below via email or IM Copy. Gaertn, Panicum maximum Jacq.

Ortiz, G. It is noteworthy that legumes are amply recognized as being important forages for use to improve animal production NAS, ; NRC,

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