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Browse our disciplines. Wiley Tina E. Chrzastowski tchrzastowski scu. Lynn N. Wiley lnwiley illinois. Manuscript submitted November 30, ; returned to authors January 8, for revision; revised manuscript submitted March 1, ; manuscript returned to authors on May 26, for minor revisions; revised manuscript submitted July 2, ; accepted for publication July 6, We gratefully acknowledge this support.
In addition, the authors wish to thank Jean-Louise Zancanella, our graduate research assistant on this project, for her careful work. Portions of the survey results were presented at the Library Assessment Conference in Seattle, Washington, in August and will be published in those proceedings; other prepublication presentations took place at the Charleston Conference in November and no proceedings publications are available; this paper represents the sole published culmination of this research.
This study had multiple components. Data were collected from a demand-driven acquisition program in humanities disciplines utilizing short-term loans downloadd via an e-book aggregator. The study measured the choice of an e-book over print by reviewing print availability as an e-book loan was initiated.
Use transactions were examined and categorized to determine levels of e-book use. Scholars from disciplines matching the Demand-Driven Acquisitions DDA offerings were invited to take a survey on e-books.
Scholars were asked about their view on the adoption of e-books, e-book values, the role of print books in the future and factors in their choice of book format.
The data showed a split in acceptance of electronic versus print. The data also show that although humanists may lag behind other disciplines in incorporating e-books into their research, they believe e-book availability and use will increase.
Many would like to see more e-books available in their disciplines. The e-book format is appreciated, but scholars may also want the full text along with the print because of the varied types of reading employed by humanities scholars. E-books are a topic of interest to librarians from all library types and all subject disciplines. Librarians at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign UIUC have published studies on e-book use and value that specifically focused on science disciplines.
However, the question of use in other subjects had not been explicitly addressed and required investigation. When the opportunity arose to continue conducting e-book research in another discipline, the humanities became the focus simply because e-book downloading was of low volume in this area, and the investigators wanted to explore why. Use is affected by download options where use may be limited because of the number of user constraints or by the digital rights management DRM set by publishers.
Specific research questions from this study include the following: What characteristics or circumstances drive the choice to use an e-book versus print? How important is accessibility and availability when weighed against the more traditional print use that can include, for example, the need to annotate text or lay open the pages of a print book?
What type of reading do humanists do when using an e-book? What qualities or capabilities do humanists expect in an e-book? Do humanists believe that e-books will see both more availability and user adoption in their discipline in five years? Literature Review The authors looked at the literature in several areas for this study to best establish a frame for understanding humanities research and what that may look like in the digital arena.
The discipline demands extensive use of monographs and it was important to know how these scholars read text. The literature on DDA is fairly extensive, considering the short time this collection development strategy has been available.
Kaczorowski published a thorough annotated bibliography of DDA research that covers the literature from approximately to Studies have been conducted and opinion pieces written on not only the nature of reading and how it relates to the digital environment but also on the effect of the online revolution on learning, leisure reading, intensive reading, and work-related reading.
E-book readers and devices and text formats ranging from PDF to ePub electronic publication are also part of the mix. Those that shed light on how academics read text and how e-content matches their needs with devices and platforms are an important part of the e-book puzzle. There is currently little known about how individuals read text print or online , and this research is exploring new ground.
Those points may frame an argument or connect the reader to a new perspective and encourage deeper understanding of the subject. Reading is also described as continuous, discontinuous, and nonlinear. Sustained reading may see the reader actively engaging with the text with annotations, note taking, comparing additional texts, or engaging with different parts of a printed book.
Scholars read deeply but not smoothly from page to page, and the activity is highly individual and active. In , Hillesund concluded in part that a significant challenge was to support sustained reflective reading, and he did not think digital text could replicate the printed text.
One question this study sought to address is, do our humanities scholars utilize e-books for sustained reading and do they believe the online format supports this type of reading?
MacWilliam reported on an e-book use study that summarizes e-reading issues.
He points out that content must be distinguished from a device or a platform. McKay describes a study of e-book use by researchers using material provided by their library at the Swinburne University of Technology in Australia. The authors saw a range of behaviors including both sequential and nonsequential page views.
Findings and Trends
They concluded that their participants used the nonlinear style most often when reading e-books. The transactional logs revealed that readers went back and forth a lot in the texts they used. The authors further described this reading as page hops, section reads, quick skims, and flipping around with some continuous reading employed. Staiger also points out that many studies agree that print and electronic can coexist and it is not a competition between the formats.
He calls for future e-book use research to focus on use by discipline and type of material e-reference, e-textbook, and e-book. The FSU humanities faculty appreciate the benefits of print browsing, serendipity, copyright and image reproduction rights while moving toward digital engagement and acknowledging the benefits of e-resources availability, accessibility, searching capabilities.
Method: Demand-Driven Acquisitions As previously cited, many DDA studies have been tested and implemented over the past five-plus years and DDA programs have become increasingly commonplace in academic libraries.
This was, however, the first time that short-term loans STLs were explored.
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Previous programs were for downloads triggered by use that exceeded specific thresholds and were budgeted for accordingly. UIUC has made DDA available for both print and e-book formats and found both these formats in a DDA program to be a successful and cost-effective way to provide materials to users within a given subject profile.
The purpose of this DDA study was to provide humanities researchers access to a wide variety of academic e-books to gauge their interest and to determine their preferences.
Create a profile for humanities monographs by making a wide array of titles from mainstream academic presses available in the UIUC online catalog for STL with a download to follow on the basis of use. Allow user access and discovery to these titles for six months.
Monitor daily use and check for overlapping print copies and their availability. Track detailed use through a transaction log. Monitor costs, making sure expenditures match projected expenses, or be prepared to stop the project if funds are depleted.
Analyze cost and use by subject and publisher. Analyze how e-books are used by employing a rubric on types of use based on transactions. The rubric was based on page views, page prints, and copies via cut and paste.
Chapter downloads were an option for only a fraction of the titles because of publisher-set DRM and therefore not included in the transactions analyzed. They were chosen because they are representative of the humanities as a whole, library bibliographers dedicated to these disciplines provided support, and they represent discrete units on campus that could be invited to participate in the survey.
The UIUC subject selectors for these disciplines were consulted before the study began and provided insight and assistance. Ebrary initially provided a list of more than , titles available from participating publishers who offered their content for library DDA STL programs. These covered all disciplines, a wide range of copyright years, and were from trade and university presses. This list was weeded via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet using parameters agreed on for the study, including limiting by subject to the six humanities disciplines and eliminating nonacademic content, literature, serials, and imprints before , and any readily identified reference title dictionaries, handbooks, or directories.
The limitation on copyright date was imposed to keep the number of records within reason and to better match the records to print copy availability. The DDA focused primarily on university press titles but also included titles from a few well-known and important trade publishers. The profile created a set of 8, monographic e-book records in the selected humanities disciplines. The data from this study cover the period from November to April , or approximately six months.
Figure 1 shows the distribution by subject of the 8, records loaded into the UIUC Voyager catalog. The distribution was directly attributable to the number of e-books available for each subject area via ebrary, i. UIUC uses two separate bibliographic records when one format is an e-book.
For this study, both electronic and print records were displayed to the user from a title or author search as separate records. E-books are prominently marked as such in the brief title display to better lead users to this type of access.
Figure 2 provides an example of the record for an e-book versus a print copy. It was also likely that all those titles would not be used nor desired by UIUC humanities scholars and students as they are engaged in research very specific to their field and interests. To gauge use and interest at a granular level, the decision was made to employ the STL option with the opportunity to download a title after a predetermined number of STLs. During the loan period, the first user and subsequent users could explore the content though with restrictions predetermined by each publisher.
In this study, the authors chose to download an e-book when a third STL was initiated. Each loan resulted in a fee of 10—20 percent of the list price charged to the account. Figure 3 provides a breakdown by the percentage charged. The total download price at the third loan was the list price added to the previous two STL fees. Not surprisingly, STLs far outnumbered outright e-book downloads during the study period as users preferred to sample many titles before an e-book garnered enough multiple loans to trigger a download.
Use and cost outcomes are available in the Results section below. Publishers determine the parameters of e-book access provided by vendors, the mix of titles offered to those third party vendors, the price, and how content can be used.
Ebrary serves as the vendor and supplies the platform, but publishers decide their own specific rules for a myriad of options. For this program, options included page views, page printing, and saving text, chapters, or the entire book, to other devices. The download option was rarely available, and page views were the one use metric consistent for all the loans. Image display image availability and or resolution is often an issue and especially for art history monographs as publishers cannot always obtain the rights to publish an image reproduction in an e-book format.
These rights management issues are widely understood by librarians, though grudgingly accepted with frustration. E-book users are not aware that each publisher decides how an e-book can be used. This frustration was reported repeatedly in survey responses and is discussed in that section of this paper.
The STL fees are also set by each publisher and are subject to change with terms agreed on between the vendor and the publisher, not generally with the library as the client. Another specific purpose of the study was to compare the use of e-books to the same title in the UIUC print collection, if owned. This was done to help determine whether there was any format bias by humanists. Access to ebrary e-books for titles owned in print format at UIUC was deliberately included to compare use.
A notification of any STL use was received by the authors via an email alert from ebrary within twenty-four hours of that use. Each title was then cross checked in the UIUC catalog for print ownership and availability. These data were logged into a report that was updated daily. Access to print materials at UIUC is designed to be as easy as possible.
A simple click to request a book from the record will provide next-day retrieval and subsequent office delivery. The service makes access to print titles an easy, quick, and convenient option comparable to online access if the book is available and therefore a choice to measure in this study.
A prepaid deposit account was created for the study. Full control over the account was provided by ebrary so that the project could be disabled if the deposit funds were expended. Initial estimates proved to be fairly accurate and the study was allowed to run for six months with only a slight overspending of the initial estimate.
Additional funds were added to continue the project through the full six months. Results of the Humanities Demand Driven Acquisitions Program There are many ways to measure e-book use, and ebrary provides multiple points of data on use.
These multiple user sessions could occur within one STL. This helps explain why, despite the high volume of user sessions, that only forty titles generated a download at the third STL during the six month study. The authors authorized the download of those e-books that did not trigger a download but showed significant use in the number of views, downloads, and unique user sessions.
These downloads were made at the end of the study to preserve access to those titles. Examples of significant use titles that did not get to the 3 STLs but were subsequently downloadd are shown in table 1. The majority of the post DDA downloads were already owned in the print format. The number of STLs generated during the study far outnumbered triggered downloads. Figure 4 shows the number of both types of user access and their cost.
downloadd titles were higher in cost than if downloadd outright due to the cumulated STL fees. Figure 5 shows the status of the STL titles that were accessed via ebrary compared to print copy ownership and their availability at UIUC. At UIUC, print books can be charged through the online catalog from anywhere and delivered to offices or a nearby library on campus.
Minimal effort is required to request a print book delivery, and print availability and the user time invested in retrieving a copy is closer to an online copy than may be true at other libraries. The choices for users in this study were to use the e-book for immediate access, request the print book for delivery, or go to the library to pick up the print book, the majority of which were available.
Faculty and graduate students at UIUC can charge a book for sixteen weeks. A book can be recalled or requested from another academic library in our consortia should local availability be an issue or, in this study, accessing the e-book copy was another option. In instances of matches of owned and available titles 58 percent , a user in the humanities elected to use an e-book when the print book was available and when that book could have been delivered to the user at their campus office.
Fifty-eight percent of users who were able to see both print and e-book availability in the online catalog opted to use the e-book rather than request the print book. It is possible that a print copy was requested sometime after an e-book was opened during a user session as a user was motivated to then seek that text. Our examination of availability was only done within twenty-four hours of an STL alert. If a book was subsequently requested, it would not have been immediately obvious.
This question warrants more investigation as the perusal of the online copy may have led a user to the print for traditional reading.
This study indicates that more researchers elected to consult the e-book first.
A total of 20 percent of the STLs were for titles not owned at the time the DDA e-book was accessed, and therefore those users had no other option but to use the e-book. The significance of this ownership, availability overlap, and user preference for the e-copy indicates the following: The UIUC collection was robust before the DDA, with print holdings that matched the online version and that showed a continued user interest.
More users elected to immediately explore the online content of the e-copy in lieu of immediately requesting the print.Conceptions of Justice from Earliest History It is clear that humanities scholars and humanities collection development librarians have been weighing the convenience and availability of e-books against the familiar print format.
When asked about their experience using e-books, 84 percent stated that they had previously used e-books, and 16 percent had not used e-books. A book can be recalled or requested from another academic library in our consortia should local availability be an issue or, in this study, accessing the e-book copy was another option.
About this book This volume, the first of its kind, launches a conversation amongst humanities scholars doing fieldwork on the global south. After doing a search for the books you need, you'll then have the option to select which version of the textbook you would like. State Arts Agencies. They explore how to make fieldwork legible to their disciplines and how fieldwork might extend the work of the humanities. Seller Comments: