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Introduction Methods to seal tissue leaks, attach devices, and to join tissues together during minimally invasive surgeries represents a significant challenge. Current surgical techniques that include sutures and staples are difficult to perform accurately through a narrow incision, do not provide a waterproof seal, and the materials used typically exhibit a mechanical mismatch with tissue and can cause tissue damage.

Furthermore, current tissue adhesives often do not exhibit the right level of adhesion in wet surgical fields and some exhibit toxicity for certain applications.

A remaining challenge is to enable surgical adhesives to be delivered through narrow channels via introducer devices e. There is an urgent need to develop approaches to enable the delivery of viscous medical adhesives through small-bore needles or trocars without compromising the adhesion force or safety. Inspired by the viscous glue secretion mechanism of the sandcastle worm Phragmatopoma californica , we have developed a nano-encapsulated viscous glue that can easily be injected through small-bore needles for application during minimally invasive procedures.

In their summaries of the literature, Hnizdo et al.

Some occupational exposures e. At later stages of OA, the condition of some subjects does not improve over weekends or during holidays and coincides with symptoms of COPD patients. This observation also applies to non-occupational obstructive airways diseases [ 69 , 70 ] and indicates that a group with changing diagnoses as well as with some overlap between OA and occupational COPD, does exist [ 66 , 71 — 73 ].

Background and objective WRA and occupational COPD are serious and sometimes fatal diseases, which can lead to ill health, inability to work and lost productivity [ 1 , 25 , 74 — 76 ].

They represent a huge economic burden to the society. The objective of this study is to summarize present knowledge on respiratory irritants causing obstructive airway diseases in humans in the occupational setting and to provide a rating of the strength of evidence for each irritant which has not been previously available.

Methodology A systematic review of the literature on occupational irritant-induced OA and occupational COPD due to occupational irritants was conducted.

Irritating gases mainly occurring in the general environment, such as ozone, and inorganic dusts, including silica, talcum, silicates and other fibers known to cause pneumoconioses, were not considered even though exposure to them is frequently associated with mixed ventilation patterns. Definitions used Occupational COPD: chronic bronchitis symptoms and non-reversible airflow limitation due to particular occupational environment if lung function data was available; otherwise, clinical diagnosis as given by the authors is cited.

Occupational asthma: episodes of shorteness of breath due to particular occupational environment and reversible airflow limitation if lung function data was available; otherwise, clinical diagnosis as given by the authors is cited.

1. Introduction

Database search. We searched for publications reporting investigations exclusively in humans i.

To be included, the publications had to deal with subjects occupationally exposed to airway irritants. Reference list screening We also considered references in the identified already existing 13 systematic reviews or overviews of causes of work-related asthma or COPD and tried to combine results of both approaches. Conditions Four different conditions were accepted for inclusion: 1. Asthma caused by single or multiple occupational exposures to airway irritants; de novo irritant-induced OA.

Asthma within 24 hours without a latency period caused by short-term high-level exposures to a respiratory irritant known as acute irritant-induced asthma, or as RADS [ 30 ].

It is of interest that the difference in half-rise and half-fall for arteries and veins was greater in the retina compared with cortical vessels.

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Again this would be consistent with a bolus of contrast agent entering and leaving a larger cortical vessel faster than a smaller retinal vessel. Thus, within the small cranial window through which imaging was undertaken, fluorescein filling in a given artery may not drain into any of the visible veins.

Furthermore, a cortical vein collects blood from a wider network of venules, many of which may not be visible through the limited window, which can also contribute to faster contrast dye filling. A higher residual fluorescence or offset was also seen in the brain. This is not surprising given the greater depth of cortical tissue and lack of pigmentation, meaning that surface as well as sub-surface vasculature contribute to the measured fluorescence Prager et al.

Furthermore, the density of capillaries is higher in the cortex though not homogenously so compared to the retina Cavaglia et al. The inner retinal vessels have only two capillary beds, in the retinal nerve fiber layer and inner plexiform layer Paques et al.

As more retinas were imaged compared to brains, this may have led to less variability in the retinal cohort. Inherent differences in blood vessel type, diameter, and number between each cranial window preparation is likely responsible for greater variability noted in the brain data.

Effect of Barrier Disruption on Flow Dynamics The retinal and cortical vasculature were similarly affected by systemic blood-neural barrier disruption, with an elevated relative offset, which is consistent with fluorescein leakage. There was little change in the rate of fluorescein filling Figure 5E.

It is important to note that systemic blood pressure can also affect the offset. Given the small increase in blood pressure at 6 h Table 2 and the slightly lower blood pressure at 24 h, it is unlikely that differences in blood pressure account for the observed elevation of offset and rightward shift of the offset histogram Figure 5C post-DOC delivery.

The elevated offset however, is consistent with previous work showing that DOC directly applied to the surface of the brain resulted in increased residual fluorescence with normal filling Prager et al.

There is a clear indication for a more gradual build-up of DOC related injury in the brain compared to the retina. One explanation for this difference may be because of the heterogeneous vascular beds included in the brain imaging.

In particular, as a craniotomy was not performed, the dura and pial vasculature could have contributed to the observed leakage. Notably, two populations of pial vessels have been described: those with similar tight junctions to the cortical vasculature and those with gaps between endothelial cell membranes and thus a more permeable BBB Allt and Lawrenson, Pial vessels are also thought to have less astrocyte coverage than intraparenchymal cortical vessels Bundgaard, ; Stewart and Hayakawa, ; Cassella et al.

Given the above, one might expect that a substantial contribution from pial vessels would have the effect of increasing leakage in the brain which occurred at 24 h but not at 6 h post-DOC. We compared the fluorescence profiles of the pial and cortical vessels in our cohort by analysing distinct regions of interest Figure S5.

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The pial vasculature could be differentiated from cortical surface vessels as they reside above the cortical vasculature and the camera gave sufficient depth of focus to discern the difference. Given this, it is unlikely that leakage from pial vessels accounts for the earlier leakage in the retina compared with the brain.

However, pial leakage may make a later contribution to the higher offset seen later at 24 h. The earlier leakage of fluorescein in the retina compared with cortical vessels following DOC administration suggests that the BRB is sensitive to systemic disruption of tight junctions.

As the imaged retinal blood vessels were generally smaller, preferential earlier leakage is possibly seen in the retina simply due to smaller blood vessels being more susceptible to DOC-induced injury. However, it is also worth noting that we have only assessed leakage at 6 and 24 h, thus how much earlier leakage appears in retinal compared with intraparenchymal vessels remains to be identified.

Nevertheless, this shares some parallels with previous studies showing that retinal vascular abnormalities can be indicative of systemic diseases such as diabetes Wessels et al.

Here we build on this idea to show that imaging the retinal vasculature may be a sensitive but simpler means to quantify injury to the cortical vasculature.

It is worth considering that the elevated offset may have arisen from damage to the vasculature during surgery to create the cranial window. Whilst the skull thinning process is less invasive than a craniotomy, it can nevertheless cause some trauma to the surface vasculature Grutzendler et al.

Care was taken during surgery to avoid this, including frequent breaks and the provision of a constant stream of cooled saline to minimize friction and heat damage.

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Despite these precautions, some damage may have occurred during the surgical procedure. However, one might have expected that this type of trauma would manifest in relatively increased leakage at the 6 h time point which was not observed Figure 5G. Our study has a number of limitations. First, the compromised barriers were probed using fluorescein sodium salt MW Comparison of a range of fluorescent tracers with different molecular structures and sizes will further define the extent to which the BRB can be used as a surrogate for the BBB.

Second, our imaging has been focused on surface cortical vessels, thus care must be taken in extrapolating similarities in retinal vessels to brain vessels other than those superficial on the brain surface. Although, these vessels share many similarities with deeper cerebral vessels in structure and in the way they are affected by bile salts Greenwood et al.

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Another difference has been that two vascular beds have been compared in two separate cohorts of animals. Whilst it would be ideal to image the retina and brain of the same animal simultaneously to allow intra-animal comparisons and remove confounds such as different blood pressures, it was not logistically feasible using our camera system.

Fortunately the average blood pressures for the retinal and cortical imaging groups were not significantly different, minimizing possible confounds. Lastly, only male rats were used in this study to remove sex as a potential confound.

This is due to inherent differences between male and female physiology, such that they may respond differently to the same pharmacological insult. However, this possibility requires further exploration to ascertain the exact differences that can occur.Other companies are charging thousands of dollars to set up accounts and give you access to their M sds online database.

Balasubramanian S. These chemicals were weighed in an analytical balance AUW D, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan , then mixed, and homogenized in a dual centrifuge Role of diode lasers nm as adjuncts to scaling and root planning in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: a systematic review. They also suggest that the interaction of MTA with phosphate-containing solutions may promote this mineralization process inside dentinal tubes.

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