Second Edition □ bodybuilding anatomy Nick Evans, MD Human Kinetics Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Evans, Nick, Bodybuilding. Download the Book:Bodybuilding Anatomy 2nd Edition PDF For Free, Preface: Sculpt your physique like you never thought po. The long head 96 BODYBUILDING ANATOMY Forearm The forearm is a mass of some 20 different muscles. . freemindakebe.ga
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Description Sculpt your physique like you never thought possible! With full-color, detailed anatomical illustrations of exercises, combined with. Bodybuilding Anatomy. CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION PROGRAM # This course will expire on December 31, After that date no credit will. Dokument: pdf ( MB) You've found the missing piece: Bodybuilding Anatomy, a book of instructions for every exercise in the gym. Check it.
Stand behind and in line with the bench, bend forward at the waist until your head touches the top of the backrest which should be set at an appropriate height for your torso to be almost parallel to the floor.
Supporting your head restricts movement in the spine and prevents swinging the dumbbells upward with momentum. Seated Bent-Over Dumbbell Raise Sit on the end of an exercise bench while bent forward at the waist with your chest resting on the thighs. Note the pronated grip on the dumbbells thumbs pointing inward , which improves isolation of the rear deltoid.
Head-supported dumbbell raise Seated bent-over dumbbell raise 23 Bent-Over Cable Raise Execution 1. Grab the handles attached to two low pulleys Oeft-side handle in right hand, right-side handle in left hand , stand In the middle, then bend for- ward at the waist with back straight and parallel to the floor.
Raise your hands upward in an arc to shoulder level, such that the cables cross over. Lower the handles back down to the start position, your right hand directly in front of the left ankle and your left hand in front of the right anlde. Lateral deltoid, trapezius, rhomboids, Infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major. Anatomic Focus 24 Trajectory: To target the posterior deltoid, your arms should move directly out to the sides. If your hands are raised In aforward arc In front of your head, the trapezius and lateral deltoid contribute to the exercise.
Body position: Isolation of the posterior deltoid is better with your torso parallel to the floor, not indined with your chest and head uppermost.
The range of motion at the start is increased if the hands are allowed to cross over uncrossing the cables as the handles are lowered. The added distance and further stretch make the posterior deltoid work harder. Unlike dumbbell raises, where the resistance varies during the 11ft, the cable pulley affords a uniform resistance throughout the motion.
The cable handle does not allow you to make changes In hand position or grip. One-Arm Bent-Over Cable Raise You can do this exercise using one arm at atime, allowing you to alter the range of motion by adjusting the start or finish positions.
This unilateral version makes it possible to raise your hand higher and get a longer sbetch at the bottom, thereby generating more work for the posterior deltoid. Stabilize your torso by resting your free hand on the thigh. Using a thumbs-up grip, grab the handles attached to two high pulleys left-side handle in right hand, right-side handle in left hand , stand upright and centrally with pulleys in front of you. Pull your hands backward and slightly down in an arc, arms nearly parallel to the floor until your hands are In line with your shoulders forming a n.
Return the handles back to the start position where your right hand is directly in front of the left shoulder and your left hand in front of the right shoulder. Anatomic Focus Trajectory: To target the posterior deltoid, your arms should move directly back and downward slightly almost parallel to the floor. If the hands are raised through a higher arc to a point above shoulder level, the trapezius and lateral deltoid make a bigger contribution to the movement. The posterior deltoid is best targeted with your torso upright, not leaning too far forward or back.
Crossing your hands over one another uncrossing the cables at the start position increases the range of motion and muscle stretch, thereby making the posterior deltoid work harder. Supported reverse cable crossover: You can do this exercise seated or standing either with the chest supported on the backrest of an incline exercise bench or with the chest against the pad of a preacher bench.
The bench is positioned centrally between two cable pulleys. Whether you sit on the bench or stand over it is optional, but you must be positioned high enough to allow the arms to perform the exercise without obstruction, with the pulleys level or just higher than your head.
This variation is easier on your lower back, so you can focus on working the deltoid. Sit facing the rear deltoid machine with your chest against the backrest, and grasp the handles directly in front with arms outstretched at shoulder level.
Pull the handles back in an arc as far as possible, keeping your elbows high and arms parallel to the floor. Return the handles to the start position directly in front. Trapezius, rhomboids, lateral deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minor, teres major.
Anatomic Focus Resistance: Like cable exercises, the rear deltoid fly machine provides a uniform resistance throughout the range of motion. This machine also offersseveral technical adjustments to grip. Most modern rear deltoid fly machines provide a choice of handles: How you hold the handles affects the degree of rotation at the shoulder joint.
Using the horizontal handles with a pronated grip palms down is the best method of isolating the posterior deltoid because the shoulder is internally rotated. A neutral grip thumbs up using the vertical handles allows the lateral deltoid to participate because the shoulder is externally rotated.
Pronated grip Trajectory: Altering the trajectory of the lift changes the relative focus on the muscles. The posterior deltoid is worked best when the handles are grasped at or just below shoulder level. If the handles are grasped above shoulder level. You can increase the range of motion by performing the exercise with one arm at a time see Variation section.
One-arm variation: Performing this exercise with one arm at a time reduces the relative contribution from the trapezius and the scapular retractor muscles, which thereby aids posterior deltoid isolation. You can also modify the range of motion during the one-arm version by changing your seating position on the machine. Sitting side-on with your inner shoulder against the backrest and performing the exercise using the outermost arm enable you to begin the exercise from a more distant start pOint beyond the opposite shoulder.
This adjustment provides a greater stretch of the deltoid and increases the effective range of motion by as much as one third. Spine of scap. Stand sideways alongside a cable pulley adjusted to waist height, and grasp the handle with your outside hand, thumb pointing up. With your elbow held firmly against your waist, move the handle in an out- ward arc away from your body, keeping your forearm parallel to the floor.
Slowly return the handle to the start position in front of your navel. Muscles Involved 30 Primary: Infraspinatus, teres minor. Rear deltoid.
During this movement, external rotation occurs at he shoulder joint from the combined actio of the infraspinatus and the teres minor. Your hand m ves i a horizontal arc with the forearm parallel to the floor. The u per arm is vertical, and your elbow is tight against your side.
Your hand oves through an arc of approximately 90 degrees, like the hand f a clock moving between 10 and 2 o'clock. Resista ce: You cannot perform this exercise with a dumbbell while standing upright, because gravity does not provide resistance for the rotator cuff.
Lying dumbbell external rotation: Stand sideways alongside a cable pulley adjusted to waist height, and grasp the handle with your inside hand, thumb pointing up. With your elbow held firm against your waist, pull the handle inward across the front of your body, keeping your forearm parallel to the floor. Slowly return the handle back to the start position.
Pectoralis major. Anatorni Focus Trajectory: During this movement, t he action of the subscapularis causes internal rotation at the shoulder jOint.
Your hand moves through a horizontal arc across t he front of your torso, and the forearm remains parallel to the floor. The elbow and upper arm are held tight against the side of your body. Your hand moves through a degree arc, like the hands of a clock moving between 10 and 2 o'clock. Du Lie across a flat exercise bench, resting on your upper back with your elbow in contact with the bench.
Begin with your forearm out to the side, almost parallel to the floor, and then raise the dumbbell in a forward arc toward vertical. Lie sideways on a bench with your torso inclined at 45 degrees supported by your underside arm. With an overhand grip, raise the dumbbell upward to head height, keeping the elbow stiff. Lower the weight back down to waist level.
Lateral deltoid, anterior deltoid. Anatomic Focus Range: The supraspinatus initiates the arm raise, acting as the primary muscle during the first 15 to 20 degrees of abduction.
Gravity on the dumbbell in the inclined position causes resistance to be highest during the early phase of the inclined raise, focusing effort on the supraspinatus. The supraspinatus is best isolated when the dumbbell is raised from in front of the hips.
A pronated grip palm down works best. This exercise is described on page Cable Lateral anse The supraspinatus initiates the arm raise and is active during the first 60 degrees of the movement. To focus on the rotator cuff muscle, terminate the upward phase when your hand reaches chest level. Dumbbell lateral raise: This exercise is described on page The upper clavicular head arises from the clavicle collarbone , and the lower sternal head arises from the sternum breastbone.
The two heads pass outward across the chest wall and merge into asingle tendon that attaches to the humerus bone in the upper arm.
As the muscle inserts, the tendon twists so that the upper head attaches beneath the lower head. When the pectoralis muscle contracts, movement takes place at the shoulder joint. Pectoralis major adducts, flexes, and internally rotates the arm, thus moving the arm forward and across the chest during movements such as a push-up or a bear hug. Even though the Upper Chest Incline barbell pn! As the position of the shoulder joint changes, certain fibers of the chest muscle have a better mechanical advantage to create motion.
Other fibers of the chest muscle are still active but are not able to contract as much because of the shoulder position.
This muscle arises from the scapula behind, and it passes forward around the chest wall to attac to the upper eight ribs. The serrated edge of this uscle emerges from beneath the outer margin of the pectoralis muscle. The serratus anterior pulls protracts the scapula forward, stabilizing it against the rib cage.
The serratus anterior is active during most chest exercises and works especially hard during the lockout phase of a push-up or bench press. The pectoralis minor muscle lies deep beneath the pectoralis major and is not visible. It has only a minor f ctio and does not contribute to the size of the chest. Chest Anatomy, Deep Muscles Pectoralis minor 39 While seated on an indine bench, take a shoulder-width overhand grip on the bar.
Push the bar straight up until your elbows lock out Muscles Involved 40 PrImary: Upper pectoralis major. Anterior deltoid, triceps. The angle of incline determines trajectory. As the backrest is raised up and the incline increases, the focus shifts progressively higher up the pectoral muscle. The upper pectoral is best targeted when the backrest is inclined at 30 to 45 degrees to the floor.
Steeper Inclines of 60 degrees or more switch the focus to the anterior deltoId. Increased incline shifts focus to higher up the pectoral muscle. Hand spacing: A shoulder-width grip or slightly wider targets all areas of the upper pectoral muscle. Narrow hand spadng emphasizes the inner central portion of the chest and requires more effort from the triceps. Wider grips provide a greater stretch, targeting the outer portion of the muscle, and minimize triceps contribution; but as the hand spacing increases, so does the risk of injury.
To maximize pectoral work, flare your elbows out wide as the barbell is lowered. A shorter rep terminating the press just before lockout keeps tension on the pectorals and reduces triceps assistance. Machine Incline press: This provides better stability and safety than the standard barbell press. Many machines offer a chOice of grips. A neutral grip thumbs up, palms facing together emphasIzes the pectorals better than a pronated grip palms forward.
While seated on an incline bench, start with the dumbbells at chest level, palms facing forward. Press dumbbells vertically upward until elbows lock out. Lower dumbbells back down to your upper chest Muscles Involved 42 Primary: As the backrest is raised up and the incline increases, the focus shifts progreSSively higher up the pectoral muscle.
Steeper inclines of 60 degrees or more switch the focus to the anterior deltoid. Dumbbell orientation affectshand position. Grasping the dumbbells with a pronated grip palms facing forward affords a greater stretch asthe weight is lowered to the start position. A neutral grip palms facing together generates a better contraction at the lockout position. To maximize pectoral work, flare your elbows out wide as the dumbbells are lowered, and touch the dumbbells together at the top.
A shorter rep terminating the Neutral grip at lockout press just before lockout keeps tension on the pectorals. The lower the dumbbells descend, the more the chest muscle stretches. Lowering the dumbbells too far can cause shoulder injury; it is safer to terminate the descent when the dumbbells reach chest level. Variable-grip dumbbell press: Begin the exercise by holding the dumbbells with a pronated grip palms forward , and rotate the dumbbells during the press 50 your palms face together neutral grip at lockout.
While seated on an incline bench, begin with dumbbells directly above your chest, palms facing together. Lower the dumbbells outward, bending elbows slightly as weight descends to chest level. Raise dumbbells back up and together. Muscles Involved 44 Primary: Increased indine shifts focus to higher up the pectoral muscle. Dumbbell orientation affects hand position. The fly exercise works best when the dumbbells are held with a neutral grip palms facing together , but a pronated grip palms fadng forward can also be used as a variation.
The lower the dumbbells descend, the greater the pectoral stretch. Too much stretch can cause Injury to the muscle and the shoulder jOint It's safer to terminate the descent when the dumbbells reach chest level.
Machine fly: Performing the machine fly described on page 54 with the seat low and the handles at eye level will target the upper pectorals. In each hand, grasp a D-handle attached to the low pulleys, and stand upright. Raise your hands up in a forward arc until the handles meet at head height.
Keeping your elbows stiff, lower the handles back to the start position. Anatomic Focus 46 Trajectory: Standing forward so that the pulleys are slightly behind you affords a better trajectory to target the pectoral muscles.
Incline Ca Ie FI Perform th is exercise while lying on an incline exercise bench positioned centrally between the low pulleys, using similar technique to that of the incline dumbbell fly described earlier. While lying on a flat bench, take a shoulder-width overhand grip on the bar. Lower the weight slowly down to touch the middle chest. Push the bar straight up until your elbows lock out.
Anatomic Focus 48 Body position: Your torso should lie flat with your shoulders and buttocks in contact with the bench.
Bodybuilding Anatomy - Nick Evans.pdf
Plant your feet firmly on the floor for stability. If your lower back is arched or your buttocks rise off the bench , the focus shifts to the lower pectorals. Raising your feet off the floor by bending your knees may help target the middle chest, but stability and balance are compromised when your feet are not in contact with the floor.
The ideal hand spacing is shoulder width or slightly wider. A narrow close grip emphasizes the inner pectorals and also targets the triceps. Wider grips target the outer section of the muscle and minimize triceps contribution.
Narrow grip Wide grip Trajectory: The bar should move vertically up and down from the middle chest nipple area. Flare your elbows out as the bar is lowered to maximize pectoral isolation. A shorter rep terminating the press just before lockout keeps tension on the pectorals and reduces the amount of triceps assistance. An underhand supinated grip on the bar switches the focus to the triceps. Machine Chest Press Machines provide better stability and safety than the standard barbell press.
Many machines offer a choice ot grips. A neutral grip thumbs up. Close-grip bench press: Perform the exercise with hands spaced approximately 6 inches 15 cm apart.
The narrow grip targets the inner pecs and works the triceps. While lying on a flat bench, start with the dumbbells at chest level, palms facing forward.
Lower dumbbells back down to middle chest. Muscles Involved 50 Primary: Anterior deltOid, triceps. Holding the dumbbells with palms facing forward pronated grip provides more stretch as the weight is lowered to the start position.
Holding the dumbbells with palms facing together neutral grip allows a better contraction in the lockout position. Neutral grip at lockout Trajectory: Your torso should lie flat on the bench, and the dumbbells should move vertically up and down from the middle chest nipple area.
To maximize pectoral isolation, flare your elbows out wide during descent and touch the dumbbells together at lockout. Hold the dumbbells with a pronated grip palms forward at the start; rotate the dumbbells as you press so that palms face together neutral grip at lockout. While lying on aflat bench, begin with dumbbells directly above middle chest, palms facing together. Lower the dumbbells out wide, bending elbows slightly as weight descends to chest level.
Raise dumbbells together in an upward arc back to the vertical position. The fly exercise works best when the dumbbells are held with a neutral grip palms fadng together , but a pronated grip palms facing forward can also be used for variation.
The lower the dumbbells descend, the greater the pectoral stretch, but also the greater the chance of injury. It's safer to terminate the descent when the dumbbells reach chest level. Cable Fly Perform this exercise with the exercise bench positioned centrally between two cable rriachines, and use D-handles attached to the low pulleys. Grab the vertical handles, elbows slightly bent. Squeeze the handles together until they touch in front of your chest. Let your hands move back to the start position, keeping your elbows up.
The fly exercise works best with a neutral grip palms facing together , but a pronated grip palms facing forward can also be used for variation.
Keep your elbows stiff and slightly bent throughout the movement. The inner central portion of the pectoral muscle does most of the work as the handles are squeezed together. To emphasize the inner pees, use a narrow range of motion focusing on the squeeze position. Perform partial reps, in which your hands move through a short degree arc from the 12 o'clock handles touching position outward to 10 0'clock on the left and 2 o'clock on the right side.
Keep your elbows straight to Do not allow the handles to pass behind the plane of your body, or you will enter the injury zone. It's safer to terminate the stretch phase when your arms are in line with your chest. Partial reps target the Inner pectorals. Position the seat so the handles are level with your chest. To maximize pectoral isolation, keep your elbows high shoulder level during the movement. When the seat is low and the handles are held high, the upper chest is emphasized.
When the seat is high and the handles are held low, the lower chest is emphasized. Unlike dumbbell flys, where the resistance varies during the lift, the machine fly affords a uniform resistance throughout the motion and is an excellent exercise for targeting the inner pees.
Pee-Deck Fly The pee-deck fly is a similar exercise using elbow pads instead of handles. One-arm machine fly: You can do this exercise using one arm at a time. Lower the weight slowly down to touch your lower chest.
Lower pectoralis major sternal head. Triceps, anterior deltoid. Anatomic Focus 56 Trajectory: The decline angle determines trajectory. As the bench is tilted head-down and the decline gets steeper, the focus shifts progressively lower down the pectoral muscle. The lower pectoral is best targeted at a decline of 20 to 40 degrees to the floor. Steeper declines shift the focus from the chest to the triceps.
Increased decline shifts focus to lower down the pectoral muscle. The ideal hand spacing is shoulder width. Wider grips target the outer section of the muscle, afford a greater stretch, and minimize triceps contribution.
A narrow close grip targets the inner pectorals and requires more work from the triceps. Decline Dumbbell Press Performing the decline press using two dumbbells affords an increased range of motion as the weight is lowered. A barbell stops when it touches the chest, whereas dumbbells can be lowered farther for additional stretch at the bottom of the lift. Machine decline press: Performing the decline press on a machine, such as the Smith machine, affords better stability and safety.
While lying on a decline bench, begin with dumbbells directly above your chest, palms facing together. Muscles Involved 58 Primary: Lower pectoralis major sternal head Secondary: The fly exerdse works best when the dumbbells are held with a neutral grip palms fadng together , but a pronated grip palms facing forward can also be used as a variation.
Variable-grip dumbbell fly: As the weight is lowered, hold the dumbbells with a pronated grip palms forward at the bottom, and then rotate the dumbbells during the lift so your palms face together neutral grip at the top.
Cable Cr ss v r Execution 1. Standing upright, grasp the D-handles attached to the high pulleys of a cable machine. Squeeze the handles down together until your hands touch in front of your waist; keep elbows slightly bent.
Slowly return to the start position with your hands at shoulder level. Muscles Involved 60 Primary: Your torso should be upright or tilted forward slightly at the waist The level at which your hands meet determines the focus on the muscle. A low trajectory, in which the handles meet In front of your hips or waist, targets the lowest fibers of the pectoral muscle.
A high trajectory, in which the handles meet at chest level, targets the midsection of the pees. High trajectory targets midsection of pectoral muscle. Crossing over your hands at the bottom inaeases the range of motion and targets the inner, central portion of the pectorals. Seated aossover: Newer machines allow you to perform this exercise while seated with a back support.
Grab the parallel bars, supporting your body with elbows locked straight. Bend your elbows, lowering your torso until upper arms are parallel to the floor. Push yourself back up until your elbows lock out Anatom Trajectory: The position of your torso affects the focus of the exercise. A slight forward tilt is better for targeting the pectorals, and the more you bend forward the harder you work the pectorals.
An upright posture shifts the focus to the triceps, and the more you straighten your torso the more you involve the triceps. Flare your elbows out as you descend to maximize pectoral isolation. A standard grip on the parallel bars with thumbs pointing forward works best when targeting the chest.
A reverse grip with thumbs pointing backward shifts the focus to the triceps. Iiting fo ta et- the ectorals.
Machine dip: You can perform this exercise while seated on a machine. But since most dip machines restrict torso motion, they tend to target the triceps more than the chest. Functionally, and for bodybuilding purposes, the back is best considered in three sections, resembling triangular segments of a quilted blanket. The upper back is made up of a large triangular-shaped muscle called the trape- zius.
It originates alongthe upper spine from the skull down to the last rib that is, all the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. The upper fibers of the trapezius in the neck attach to the outertip of the shoulder on the clavicle, acromion, and scapula. The middle and lower fibers of the trapezius in the upper back attach to the scapula shoulder blade. The middle traps retract the scapula, pulling the shoulders backward; the lower traps depress the scapula downward.
Underneath the trapezius are three muscles that anchor the scapula to the spine: The levator scapulae muscles assist the uppertraps to elevate the scapula. The rhomboid muscles work with the middle traps to retract the scapula. These scapular retractor muscles lie underthe trapezius and add muscular thickness to the upper back. From its large origin, the latissimus converges into a bandlike tendon that attaches to the upper humerus next to the tendon of the pectoralis major.
When the latis- simus dorsi contracts, movement takes place at the shoulder jOint. The latissimus dorsi pulls the upper arm downward and backward shoulder extension ; hence this muscle is targeted by pulldowns, pull-ups, and rows.
The latissimus also pulls the arm in against the side of the body adduction. The lower back is made up of the erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles that run alongside the entire length of the spinal column.
In the lumbar region, the erector spinae split into three columns: These muscles are the pillars of strength in the lower back that stabilize the spine and extend the torso, arching the spine backward. The trapezius and latissimus dorsi are concerned primarily with move- ments of the shoulder and arm.
It is the sacrospinalis muscles that cause movements of the spine and torso. Exercises that target the back muscles include shrugs, pulldowns, pull-ups, rows, and lumbar extensions. The deadlift is a compound, multijoint exercise that utilizes all of the back muscles see page Hold a barbell at arms' length in front of the thighs, using an overhand shoulder-width grip.
Keeping arms stiff, shrug your shoulders as high as possible, pulling the bar vertically upward. Lower the bar slowly down to the start position, stretching the trapezius. M Primar: Tra ezius Lpp r and middl fibers.
Levator scapulae, deltoid, erector spinae, forearms. A houlder-width or narrower grip on the bar emphasizes the trapezius. A wider grip works the deltoid as well. Lift the bar straight up and down.
Do not roll or rotate the shoulders. Performing the shrug while standing vertically upright hits the muscle centrally. Tilting the torso slightly backward at the waist targets the upper trapezius in the neck, whereas leaning slightly forward hits the midsection of the muscle behind the shoulders. Please download to get full document.
View again. Home Research Science Bodybuilding anatomy 2nd edition pdf. Bodybuilding anatomy 2nd edition pdf. Bodybuilding Anatomy-2nd Edition Nicholas Evans 2. Human Kinetics Release Date: Nicholas Evans Download Here…. Share Bodybuilding anatomy 2nd edition pdf. Embed Bodybuilding anatomy 2nd edition pdf. All materials on our website are shared by users. Examples of anaerobic exercise include sprinting and weight lifting. The anaerobic energy delivery system uses predominantly Type II or fast-twitch muscle fibers, relies mainly on ATP or glucose for fuel, consumes relatively little oxygen, protein and fat, produces large amounts of lactic acid and can not be sustained for as long a period as aerobic exercise.
Many exercises are partially aerobic and partially anaerobic; for example, soccer and rock climbing involve a combination of both. The presence of lactic acid has an inhibitory effect on ATP generation within the muscle; though not producing fatigue, it can inhibit or even stop performance if the intracellular concentration becomes too high. However, long-term training causes neovascularization within the muscle, increasing the ability to move waste products out of the muscles and maintain contraction.
Once moved out of muscles with high concentrations within the sarcomere, lactic acid can be used by other muscles or body tissues as a source of energy, or transported to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvate.
In addition to increasing the level of lactic acid, strenuous exercise causes the loss of potassium ions in muscle and causing an increase in potassium ion concentrations close to the muscle fibres, in the interstitium.
Acidification by lactic acid may allow recovery of force so that acidosis may protect against fatigue rather than being a cause of fatigue. Once thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers caused by eccentric contraction , or unaccustomed training levels. Since lactic acid disperses fairly rapidly, it could not explain pain experienced days after exercise.
Contrary to popular belief, the number of muscle fibres cannot be increased through exercise. Instead, muscles grow larger through a combination of muscle cell growth as new protein filaments are added along with additional mass provided by undifferentiated satellite cells alongside the existing muscle cells.
During puberty in males, hypertrophy occurs at an accelerated rate as the levels of growth-stimulating hormones produced by the body increase. Natural hypertrophy normally stops at full growth in the late teens.
As testosterone is one of the body's major growth hormones, on average, men find hypertrophy much easier to achieve than women. Taking additional testosterone or other anabolic steroids will increase muscular hypertrophy.
Muscular, spinal and neural factors all affect muscle building. Sometimes a person may notice an increase in strength in a given muscle even though only its opposite has been subject to exercise, such as when a bodybuilder finds her left biceps stronger after completing a regimen focusing only on the right biceps.
This phenomenon is called cross education. Muscles may atrophy as a result of malnutrition, physical inactivity, aging, or disease. Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, a decrease in muscle mass that may be accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content.
In humans, prolonged periods of immobilization, as in the cases of bed rest or astronauts flying in space, are known to result in muscle weakening and atrophy. The exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, but it may be due to a combination of the gradual failure in the "satellite cells" that help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors that are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival.
Sarcopenia is a normal aspect of aging, and is not actually a disease state yet can be linked to many injuries in the elderly population as well as decreasing quality of life.
Examples include cancer and AIDS , which induce a body wasting syndrome called cachexia. Other syndromes or conditions that can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart disease and some diseases of the liver. Disease Main article: Neuromuscular disease In muscular dystrophy , the affected tissues become disorganized and the concentration of dystrophin green is greatly reduced.
In general, problems with nervous control can cause spasticity or paralysis , depending on the location and nature of the problem.
A large proportion of neurological disorders , ranging from cerebrovascular accident stroke and Parkinson's disease to Creutzfeldt—Jakob disease , can lead to problems with movement or motor coordination. Symptoms of muscle diseases may include weakness , spasticity , myoclonus and myalgia.
Diagnostic procedures that may reveal muscular disorders include testing creatine kinase levels in the blood and electromyography measuring electrical activity in muscles. In some cases, muscle biopsy may be done to identify a myopathy , as well as genetic testing to identify DNA abnormalities associated with specific myopathies and dystrophies.
A non-invasive elastography technique that measures muscle noise is undergoing experimentation to provide a way of monitoring neuromuscular disease.Leaning your torso back about 30 degrees from the vertical plane improves trajectory and helps isolate the latissimus dorsi muscle.
Pronation, rotating the hand so the palm faces down " give change" , is performed by the pronator teres and pro- nator quadratus. Your hand moves through a horizontal arc across the front of your torso, and the forearm remains parallel to the floor. Chapter 6 is devoted to the development of phenomenal abdominals.
To maximize forearm involvement, be sure to achieve a full range of motion at the wrists. At the beginning of every chapter you get a guided tour of each muscle group.
Push vertically upward until your elbows lock out. Martin Barnard; Developmental Editor: